Dec 20, 2004

Unde et Memores

Missale Romanum 1962

Unde et memores, Domine, nos servi tui sed et plebs tua sancta, eiusdem Christi Filii tui Domini nostri tam beatae passionis, nec non ab inferis resurrectionis, sed et in caelos gloriosae ascensionis: offerimus praeclarae maiestati tuae de tuis donis ac datis, hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam. Panem sanctum vitae aeternae et Calicem salutis perpetuae.

Mindful, therefore, O Lord, not only of the blessed passion of the same Christ, Thy Son, our Lord, but also of His resurrection from the dead, and finally His glorious ascension into heaven, we, Thy ministers, as also Thy holy people, offer unto Thy supreme majesty, of Thy gifts bestowed upon us, the pure Victim, the holy Victim, the all-perfect Victim: the holy Bread of life everlasting and the Chalice of unending salvation.1

Alternate translations:

Wherefore, O Lord, we Thy servants, as also Thy holy people, calling to mind the blessed passion of the same Christ, Thy Son, our Lord, His resurrection from the grave, and His glorious ascension into heaven, offer up to Thy most excellent majesty of Thine own gifts bestowed upon us, a victim which is pure, a victim which is holy, a victim which is stainless, the holy bread of life everlasting, and the chalice of eternal salvation.2

Wherefore, O Lord, we Thy servants, and likewise Thy holy people, calling to mind the blessed Passion of the same Christ Thy Son, our Lord, together with His resurrection from the grave, and also His glorious ascension into heaven, offer unto Thy excellent Majesty, of Thy gifts and presents a pure Victim, a holy Victim, an immaculate Victim: the holy bread of eternal life, and the chalice of everlasting salvation.3

Missale Romanum 1970

Unde et memores, Domine, nos servi tui sed et plebs tua sancta, eiusdem Christi Filii tui Domini nostri tam beatae passionis, nec non ab inferis resurrectionis, sed et in caelos gloriosae ascensionis: offerimus praeclarae maiestati tuae de tuis donis ac datis, hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam. Panem sanctum vitae aeternae et Calicem salutis perpetuae.

Father, we celebrate the memory of Christ, your Son. We your people and your ministers, recall his passion, his resurrection from the dead, and his ascension into glory; and from the many gifts you have given us we offer to you, God of glory and majesty, this holy and perfect sacrifice: the bread of life and the cup of eternal salvation.4

This prayer actually forms together with the next two preceding prayers a single liturgical prayer of oblation. The consecration of the elements has essentially completed the liturgical sacrifice by the making present of the Body and Blood of Christ upon the Altar. For we hold by faith that the sacrifice of the Altar is the re-presentation to the Father of the Sacrifice of the Cross. Therefore the making present of the Sacrifice of the Cross already completes the essential sacrificial action. However, the Church wishes to present these holy gifts together with those spiritual gifts we have offered in union with the one sacrifice of Christ. She does so with supplication that they be accepted and finally asks for the blessings of grace to be abundantly poured out upon all who participate in the holy sacrificial action.

Dr. Gihr points out that the plural “Thy servants” is a left-over from a time when the concelebration of the priests with the bishop was still in practice. This points to two things, first it proves the ancient tradition in the Roman Church of concelebration which dwindled in frequency until it remained only for the ordination of priests and bishops. Secondly, it proves the antiquity of the prayer itself.5

“At this offering priest and people are at the same time “mindful also of the blessed passion, resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ,” and that, because the Lord Himself commanded it. It is to this above-mentioned and previously stated command of Christ (in mei memoriam facietis) [hoc facite in meam commemorationem] that the words Unde et memores refer. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is the living commemoration and mystical accomplishment of the entire work of redemption (opus redemptionis nostrae exercetur); Christ, as Highpriest and as Victim, is present on the altar with all the fruits and merits of the redemption. In the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass not only His passion and death, but also the life of His glory is mystically (in mysterio) represented and renewed. Three great mysteries are here principally made prominent: before all, the sufferings of Christ in His sacrifice and death on the Cross, as the essence and center of the work of the redemption; then the joyful resurrection and glorious ascension, which constitute the conclusion, crown and completion of the work of the redemption.”6

The ICEL text, as seen in previous prayers, is not a literal translation. They do not translate the triple hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam, instead opting for a paraphrase of this holy and perfect sacrifice. It is part of the character of the Roman Canon, that in places things are repeated in triplicate and in seems that in these cases, the translators opted not to carry this distinctive characteristic into the English translation. Secondly, they refuse the translation of hostiam as victim, rendering it instead as sacrifice. It remains true that in all sacrifices a victim is offered. It seems plausible that the scholars responsible for translation thought it best to underscore this interconnection for those of the faithful who might not have understood the interconnection between victim and sacrifice. Remaining consistent to my previous criticism, I prefer a literal translation to an interpretive one, regardless of the appropriateness or quality of the translation. Due to the rendering of victim as sacrifice some have criticized the translators of being intentionally unfaithful to the catholic ethos of the text. I see no reason to presume that is the case. They have drawn a sufficient interconnection between the passion, resurrection and ascension of Christ into glory and the holy and perfect sacrifice offered sacramentally: the bread of life and cup of eternal salvation.

The wording they chose to translate ‘offerimus praeclarae maiestati tuae de tuis donis ac datis’, fails to draw out the double meaning of the Latin text. The chosen translation represents only a reference to the earthly elements offered as ‘from the many gifts you have given us.’ A better choice in my opinion is the use of the prepostion ‘of’ rather than ‘from.’ The gifts now offered are not merely the eucharistic elements of bread and wine, for this offering was accomplished at the Offertory. The offering done here is more significant in that it comes after the consecration is completed. This echoes the Byzantine Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom: “Remembering therefore this precept of salvation and everything that was done for our sake, the Cross, the tomb, the resurrection on the third day, the ascension into heaven, the enthronement at the right hand, the second and glorious coming again, we offer Thee Thine own of what is Thine own, in all and for sake of all.”7

As I have seen numerous times throughout the ICEL texts, wherever they have decided to simplify the structure of a prayer, or elucidate a particular meaning of phrases in order to instruct the faithful, they succeeded mostly in obscuring the richness of our tradition while simultaneously stripping it of its literary beauty. Still, what remains is orthodox and with a little study of the original text nothing is lost to the faithful who desire to know the mind of the Church.

1 My Sunday Missal, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph F. Stedman, Confraternity of the Precious Blood, 1961, pp.. 37-38.

2 The New Roman Missal, Fr. F. X. Lasance, Christian Book Club of America, 1993, pg. 784.

3 The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass; Dogmatically, Liturgically and Ascetically Explained, Rev Dr. Nicholas Gihr, 6th edition, B. Herder Book Co, 1924, pp. 646-647.

4 Daily Roman Missal, Fr. James Socias, ed., Midwest Theological Forum, 2003, pg. 758-759.

5 The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, Rev. Dr. Gihr, pg. 649.

6 Ibid., pg. 650-651

7 The Divine and Holy Liturgy of our Father among the Saints John Chrysostom, Kyr Joseph-Archibishop Raya, Alleluia Press, pg. 67.

Dec 17, 2004

In Perpetuity?

Changes to the Roman Missal brought about by Cum Sanctissimum (1604 Clement VIII)

1570 Roman Missal: Rubric directing the celebrant upon entering the church to kneel and recite a verse from Ps. 65: Introibo in domum tuam; in holocaustis reddam tibi vota mea, quae distinxerunt labia mea, before reciting the further antiphon, Ne reminiscaris, and the five psalms in preparation for Mass.

1604 Roman Missal: First antiphon suppressed (omitted).

1570 Roman Missal: The prayer of St. Ambrose, Summe Sacerdos, is not divided into parts.

1604 Roman Missal: The Summe Sacerdos is divided into sections for various days of the week.

1570 Roman Missal: The general rubrics are not numbered. Within the general rubrics there is no mention of ringing a bell, incense or torchbearers.

1604 Roman Missal: The general rubrics are numbered. Ringing a bell, incense and torchbearers are included in the rubrics along with additions such as RG XX describing the preparation required for the altar.

1570 Roman Missal: After the Confiteor the words “all sins” appear in the absolution rite. (Misereatur...omnibus peccatis; Indulgentiam ...omnium peccatorum)

1604 Roman Missal: The words “all sins” do not appear in Clement VIII’s Missal.

1570 Roman Missal: At High Mass the verse Dirigatur Domine ... is to be said by the celebrant while he incenses the altar before saying the Introit and again when the altar is incensed during the Offertory.

1604 Roman Missal: This rubric is suppressed in the Missal of Clement VIII.

1570 Roman Missal: The Kings name is mentioned in the Canon.

1604 Roman Missal: This rubric suppressed.

1570 Roman Missal: The words “As often as you do these things...,” (Haec quotiescumque) are said while the celebrant elevates the chalice.

1604 Roman Missal: The rubrics order the above words to be said after the elevation instead of during.

1570 Roman Missal: At the end of High Mass, the celebrant is directed to impart three blessings not one: one at the epistle corner, one in the center, and one at the gospel corner of the altar. (“In missa solemnia... ter benedicat populo, primo a cornu Epistolae dicens, Pater, secundo ante medium altaris dicens, Et Filius, tertio a cornu Evangelii dicens, Et Spiritus Sanctus...”)

1604 Roman Missal: This rubric suppressed and triple blessings reserved for prelates.

Source: Paul Cavendish, in an article for Altar No. 1, 1994 "The Tridentine Mass". Cites Missale Romanum, Paris, 1572, British Library Catalogue 15; Pontificale Romanum, Venice, 1572, British Library Catalogue C132.h.50.

Also of note is the suppression by the 1570 Roman Missal of a proper Mass entitled the “Immaculate Conception” for December 8th. Most pre-Trent missals have this Mass formula and give the introit Egredimini and the same collect as in the Mass proper Pius IX was to authorize three centuries later. In Pius V’s missal no mention of “immaculate” appears and in most of the early editions of the missal a proper is not even printed on December 8th for Our Lady’s Conception instead a rubric directs the celebrant to use the formulary given for the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin on September 8th and change the word “nativity” to “conception” in the collect. (Missale Romanum, Venice, 1481, British Library Catalogue IA19880; Missale Romanum, 1572, loc. cit).

Pope St. Pius V's missal lasted only 34 years in it's entirety before revision. Clement VIII's missal lasted only 30 years after that. There doesn't seem to be substantial differences in Urban's missal, mainly a re-wording of the rubrics for clarity and a change in the calendar. Of course this missal was again modified by Benedict XV, which incorporated the changes of Pius X revision's to the calendar and rubrics (e.g. the color of vestments within octaves, the number of Masses to be sung in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches when a feast and major feria coincided, rules regarding the choice of preface, and the choice of Mass formulary in Lent et al.) The major change brought about by this revision is the familiar green vestments on Sunday. Before this revision when Sunday's and feasts coincided, the Sunday was commemorated in the festal Mass the color of the vestments therefore being red or white.

Pretty much the same development occured with the Breviary. The Bull establishing the Tridentine Breviary Quod a nobis called down the same wrath of the Apostles Peter and Paul upon any who dared to omitt, add, or change the Breviary of Trent in any manner whatsoever. On that score alone, the argument used for the 'perpetuity' of Quo Primum Tempore would cause us to reject the development to the Breviary in the same manner that the some use Quo Primum Tempore to reject the later revisions to the Roman Missal. Clearly we don't reject the Clement VIII, Urban VIII, Pius X/Benedict XV, Pius XII (except some fringe sedevacanist groups) or the John XXIII (again some sedevacanists do) revisions to the Roman Missal. Since we accept the revisions of the Breviary and Missal up to this point, it's simply arbitrary to not accept those revisions brought about by the pontificates of Paul VI and John Paul II. Indeed, Quo Primum Tempore simply does not and cannot mean what some claim it to in their protestations of the Vatican II era revisions given their practice of accepting all of the above mentioned reforms.

Veni Veni Emmanuel

Taking the time to study the propers and readings for the Masses of Advent is quite edifying. Both the current missa normativa and the 1962 editio typica do not in fact spend most of their time contemplating the Nativity of our Lord primarily. In fact, the season itself is one with a penitential character. The focus is on not only preparing and remembering for the historical event of the Virgin Birth, but has an eschatological meaning in the preparing and waiting for the glorious Second Coming.

The scripture texts in the 1962 Missal are: Rom 13:11-14, Luke 21: 25-33 (First Sunday); Rom 15:4-13, Matt 11:2-10 (Second Sunday); Philip 4:4-7, John 1:19-28 (Third Sunday); 1 Cor 4:1-5, Luke 3:1-6 (Fourth Sunday).

The scripture texts in the current Missal are: Is 2:1-5, Ps 122:1-9, Rom 13:11-14, Matt 24:37-44 (First Sunday); Is 11:1-10, Ps 72:1-2, 7-8, 12-13, 17, Rom 15:4-9, Matt 3:1-12 (Second Sunday); Is 35:1-6a, 10, Ps 146:6-10, Jas 5:7-10, Matt 11:2-11 (Third Sunday); Is 7:10-14, Ps 24:1-6, Rom 1:1-7, Matt 1:18-24 (Fourth Sunday).

In both missals what is underscored for the liturgy is a remembrance of the promises of redemption in the Old Testament, a celebration of the Nativity as a historical event, and the looking forward to the advent of our Saviour in the end times. The First Sunday reminds us at the Postcommunion prayer that the coming celebration is the celebration of our Redemption.1 The Communion prayer of the Second Sunday reminds us to rejoice with Jerusalem as the prophets had extolled her for the joy which comes from God.2 The Third Sunday captures the underlying idea behind the Advent Season: God will save us. This message is expressed throughout the season in the readings and especially on the Third Sunday in the Collect and the Communion prayer.3 The Fourth Sunday builds to the celebration coming and expresses it's joy and expectation in the Introit, while begging for forgiveness in anticipation of the Nativity/Second Coming in the Alleluia.4.

The study of liturgical texts bears the fruits of contemplation, giving the individual to understand the communal celebration of the Church. She bears witness to the Faith in and through her liturgy. This season is one of penance in reparation for failures and in anticipation of salvation. It is a season of joy, recalling the God who is faithful to his promise and with Fatherly love gives to us every good thing: expressing it in the humbling of the Second Person who deigns to take upon himself our human nature for the salvation of those whom he loves so perfectly. Let us recall this event, amend our lives, and look forward with joy to this forthcoming celebration: remembering always that he has kept his promises and will keep his promise to return.

Allelúia, allelúia. Excita Dómine poténtiam tuam et veni: ut salvos fácias nos. Allelúia.

Alleluia, alleluia. Stir up Thy might, O Lord, and come: that Thou mayest save us. Alleluia Ps 79:3

1. Postcommunion: May we in the midst of Thy holy temple, O Lord, receive of Thy mercy, who seek with fitting honour to welcome the coming festival of our Redemption. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end. Amen.

2. Communion - Bar. 5:5; 4:36: Arise, O Jerusalem, and stand on high: and behold the joy that cometh to thee from thy God.

3. Communion - Is. 35:4: Say, ye faint-hearted, take courage, and fear not: behold our God will come and will save us. Collect: Bow down Thine ear, we beseech Thee, O Lord, to our prayers; and by the brightness of Thine Advent lighten the darkness of our minds. Who livest and reignest, with God the Father, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end. Amen.

4. Introit: Is. 45:8; Ps. 18:2: Drop down dew, ye heavens, from above, and let the clouds rain the just; let the earth be opened and bud forth a Saviour. Ps: The heavens show forth the glory of God, and the firmament declareth the work of His hands. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen. Alleluia: Alleluia, alleluia. Come O Lord, and tarry not: forgive the sins of Thy people Israel. Alleluia.

Incidentally it is also the Fourth Sunday of Advent in the 1962 Missal which uses the text that we know as the first half of the Hail Mary: Offertory: Luke 1:28, 42: Hail Mary, full of grace; the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.